During the presence of a magnetic field, a ferrofluid, which is a liquid that gets strongly magnetized, is formed.
The characteristic ‘spikey’ shape of a magnetized ferrofluid is created by the requirement to find the most stable shape in order to minimize the total energy of the system, which is induced by a process known as normal-field instability, which causes the ferrofluid to become magnetized.
Due to the fact that fluid is more easily magnetized than surrounding air, the fluid is pushed out along the magnetic field lines, resulting in the creation of peaks and troughs in the magnetic field.
Gravity and surface tension, on the other hand, act as a brake on the extension of the ferrofluid.
In the process of forming corrugations, the magnetic energy of the system is reduced, while the gravitational energy and surface free energy of the system are increased.
In the event that these forces are in balance, the lowest possible energy configuration is attained. It is possible to induce peaks in ferrofluids with a tiny bar magnet because ferrofluids are extremely easily magnetized (they have an extremely high magnetic susceptibility).
In chemistry, ferromagnetic fluids are known as colloidal fluids because they are made up of nanoscale ferromagnetic particles floating in a carrier fluid, commonly water or an organic solvent such as kerosene, and coated with a surfactant to prevent them from clumping together in the liquid.
A typical composition would consist of 5 percent magnetic particles, 10 percent surfactant, and 85 percent carrier fluid, to name a few elements.
Ferrofluids are also the subject of current scientific investigation, and they have the potential to be utilized in a wide range of medical applications.
Examples of magnetic drug targeting include the use of ferrofluid to enclose medicines and then applying a magnetic field to maintain the drugs in the targeted body location after they have been administered.
In addition, the localization would limit exposure to other parts of the body and allow for a reduction in the dosage level, minimizing the number of unpleasant side effects experienced by the patient.